Thanks to Brilliant for supporting this episode

of SciShow. Go to Brilliant.org/SciShow to learn more. [♪ INTRO] In 2019, Google researchers announced that

they had achieved quantum supremacy. That does not mean that they’re ushering

in a new sci-fi future. As far as we know. It sounds very grandiose. Instead, it describes what might be the first useful quantum computer, an entirely new way of performing calculations that’s better

than anything we’ve got right now. But not everyone thinks that Google actually

got there, or that quantum supremacy is even a thing worth worrying about. To understand what this means, we’ve got

to go way back to the basics of how computers work. If you’ve been told one thing about a computer, it’s that, deep down, everything is just

ones and zeros. And, amazingly, this very simple fact is more

or less true. The principle behind your everyday modern

computer dates back to a landmark paper published by British computer scientist Alan Turing

in 1936. He described a theoretical device we now call the Turing machine, capable of solving any

problem with just three simple actions. The machine could read a zero or one from

a bit of memory, like a strip of paper. It could also write a zero or one to that

bit of memory, or it could move to an adjacent bit. Mathematicians have proven that by combining those three actions with a set of rules about

when to use each one, the Turing machine is capable of solving any

mathematical problem. It was theoretical at the time, but now every

modern computer is basically just an extremely complicated,

very small, really wonderful Turing machine. These devices now are starting to be called

classical computers. Quantum computers, on the other hand, wait

for this, have bits called qubits that can represent

a zero, a one, or any combination of the two. To understand what that means, we gotta use

quantum physics’ most famous — or infamous — problem. Yes, the cat one. This thought experiment, first proposed by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger, imagined a cat locked in a box with a poison

device. At a random time, the device would activate

and kill the cat. Until you open the box, you can’t know whether the dirty deed has actually happened, so,

in a sense, the cat is both alive and dead while hidden

from view. We’ve simplified this. Now, Schrödinger’s whole point with this

is that the world we’re familiar with — the classical

world — doesn’t work like this. But the quantum world does. The cat is both alive and dead, but only with quantum particles. Now let’s get back to qubits. When you read the value of a qubit, you only

ever get a zero or a one, just like the cat can only ever be alive or

dead in the end. But which you get is all up to chance. Every qubit has a probability of being a zero and a probability of being a one, a combination called a superposition. But what the chances of each are is based

on how the qubit is set up. What’s more, the values of different qubits can be linked together in a process called

quantum entanglement. That means that if you measure the state of one entangled qubit, you also get information about its buddies. This adds up to, well, math. By entangling qubits in certain combinations, engineers can solve some of the same kinds

of problems that they can with classical computers. It’s the combination of superposition and

entanglement that gives quantum computers their theoretical

power. Basically, they should be able to do the same

things, but way faster. In principle, a quantum computer can perform a calculation very quickly by representing

all possible outcomes at once and then finding the correct one. Which brings us back to quantum supremacy. It’s the idea that this approach can solve

some kinds of problems that classical computers can’t

— in a practical amount of time, that is. But unlike the physics that actually makes

quantum computers work, the idea of supremacy, of being better than

classical computers, is pretty imprecise. Like, what counts as an impractical amount

of time? Also, quantum computers might be better only

for certain specific kinds of problems — so does

that matter? Google’s announcement that they had achieved quantum supremacy has put these questions front and center. They constructed a device consisting of 54

qubits, made of tiny loops of superconducting wire and capable of representing around ten quadrillion

states. With it, they created a quantum random number

generator and generated a million numbers in just 200

seconds. And after running some tests on the world’s most powerful supercomputer, they concluded that the machine would take about 10,000 years to do the same thing. But it didn’t take long for a research group

at IBM to respond, claiming they could program the same supercomputer to do the simulation in two and a half days, while also providing extra accuracy. This is why it would be nice to have a more solid definition of quantum supremacy. 2.5 days is not 10,000 years, but it’s still about 1000x slower than 200 seconds. But we also don’t necessarily need a quantum random number generator. Classical ones work fine. So even if this is quantum supremacy, does

that matter? We at SciShow are not qualified to say, but what’s clear is that quantum computers

are getting better. And that has profound implications for the world we live in. Take, for instance, cryptography. Every time you log into your computer or check

your email, your data is protected by encryption. That encryption only works because classical

computers can’t efficiently solve certain kinds of

math problems. The code protecting your bank account, for

instance, isn’t unbreakable — it would just take

so long that the bad guys don’t bother. But what if something that today takes ten

thousand years suddenly takes two hundred seconds? That’s the kind of change quantum computing

represents. In a way, you can think of these machines totally like classical computers in the 1950s. They fill rooms, require tons of power, and are only useful for certain kinds of problems. But year by year, they’re getting smaller

and more powerful. We can debate how much progress has been made, but progress is being made. If history is any indication, we will get there sooner or later. Whenever quantum computers do become a thing, they’re going to need quantum computer programmers. And you can learn computer science for yourself with the courses on Brilliant.org. Like the in-depth course on data structures, which is all about the fundamental ways computers

store and manipulate data. By the end of the course, you’ll know exactly

how computers store data easily and access it

quickly. Brilliant has dozens of courses like this

one. In addition to computer science, they cover science, engineering, and math. Each one is designed to be hands-on and to keep you engaged the whole way through. Courses are even available offline via their

Android and iOS apps so you can keep learning on the go. The first 200 people to sign up at Brilliant.org/SciShow will save 20% on an annual premium subscription. So if you’ve been telling yourself you want

to learn to code, here’s your chance! And by checking them out, you’re helping

support SciShow, so thanks! [♪ OUTRO]

Go to http://Brilliant.org/SciShow to try their data structures course. The first 200 subscribers get 20% off an annual Premium subscription.

Wait. If Turing machines are capable of solving ANY mathematical problem doesn't that make any mathematical problem solvable, therefore contradicting the second incompletude theorem and making P=NP?

One thing we can be sure of is that Google will use it for evil.

…supremacy? Really? You could've read some of the discourse that went around on STEM twitter, specifically by PoC, before using that term.

Really misstepped with that one.

the CAT ONE

Hello there.. We are Aploding videos of recipes from India…. Please watch

First White Supremacy, Now Quantum Supremacy? This Is Next Level Racist

till the day the real practical computers arrive, enjoy privacy

Quantum computers are just normal computers plus magic.

You really butchered this one. Turning machines were purely theoretical, and they cant solve any mathematical problem, ie ther halting problem. Second, schrodinger's cat was a thought experiment to demonstrate the absurdity of quantum mechanic interpretations.

Why does it sound like bragging to me?

Finally i could open 2 tabs of google chrome at the same timeHank: "Erwin Schrow-Dinger" — Me: "who now? Oh… Schrödinger… German really is hard…"

do not trust anything a corporate scumbag like google says, AI for example will be the end of humanity

I felt so smart when I knew the things you were talking about. Guess that 1 semester of quantum informatics didn't go to waste after all.

Probably never.

After all those years doing this. Ffs start wearing human shirts and under shirts

long time = System.currentTimeMillis();

for(int i = 0; i < 1000000; i++){

Math.random();

}

long elapsed = System.currentTimeMillis() – time;

System.out.println("Time taken: " + (elapsed / 1000.0) + " seconds");

Output:

Time taken: 0.018 seconds

So can a quantum computer crack classical computers encryptions more easily?

May be useful for weather and particle simulations as well as procedural generation for CGI and games, I guess

I feel for you, Hank. They pick a few examples and suggest that everything changes. In fact, almost nothing changes. Turing complete devices (e.g. smartphones) can do the same as all other similar devices. Quantum computers will only ever do a microscopic fraction of those computations albeit super fast.

There is no need for your web developer to worry.

Fan: (randomly turned on in a confined space)

Cat: (dead)

Is this a reference to South Korean myth?

I had no idea that fans were so dangerous!!!!!!!

So a Quantum computer will have Windows crash so fast that it's crashed before you finish pressing the power button? 😛

Wake me up, when I'll be able to install Linux on this quantum thing.

" this is nothing that we should be worrying about"

yeah…I've heard that before…

Someone needs to upgrade their encryption before we all become potential victims

That Q-computer would look awesome on the ceiling in my living room. It doesn't need to be SUPREME to draw my admiration!

Quantum computers oppress classical computers. It's computer racism!

Quantum Computer + A.I(singularity)

u cant take that backSo, basically, Google can read our little secrets. Nothing new.

We need quantum RNG for sh8s and giggles.

Cool

2:18 is this a korea joke?

The truth is nobody knows how to effectively make use of a qbit.

Which is good for me.

The answer to the question in the title is: NOW! All computers are made of Atoms which are made of Quantums.

And all i can think is "imagine gaming on a quantum computer."

What was it Einstein said?

The better our technology, the stupider the majority of people will be?

Or something like that?

"solving for" = "looking in the box" The answer will always be skewed to the instant it is presented. The quantum realm can not be compared to our 4D realm.

IBM has a lot to lose if Google really manage to break quantum computing.

They even might be the thing..

I do wonder how hard it is to just listen to a german sample on how to pronounce someone's name. I don't think i have ever heard someone butcher a name as bad as here. You are science channel, very least you could give an educated try.

Are we on the verge of discovering computroneum, programmable matter?

1:57 "any combination of the two"

No, it can't have

anycombination. Only combinations that, when the superposition is represented as the vector z * |0〉 + w * |1〉 where z and w are complex numbers, obeys ||z^2|| + ||w^2|| = 1You can't make up a combination where the weights are a kind of number with more dimensions than the complex plane (eg quaternions).

And you can't have 0 * |0〉 + 0 * |1〉 among other invalid vectors.

But can it run Minecraft?

It's like the guy that fixed my computer locally has 2 masters degrees in AI, from a community college.

There are many forms of technological knowledge out there.

Classical supremacists reign

Well speaking of quantum computing taking jumps ahead in technology pun intended…

Scientists Predict Quantum Jumps, Turning Physics on Its Head. Found: Schrödinger’s cat, alive and well. So does this mean FTLC / Faster-than-light communication is now possible? And what does this mean for quantum computing?

https://futurism.com/predict-quantum-jumps-schrodingers-cat

>random number generator

>do the same thing with more accuracy

Err what?

1M numbers/200s = 5000/s. My home computer runs at 4 GHz and I'm pretty sure generating one random number takes less than 800,000 instructions. What are they talking about when they say it's faster than even super computers?

… but I need two-step authentication to access my bank account

Never ever again I will allow my cat to touch a fan

Upvote for the paper cat

Even though your channel is a pop sci oriented one and thus not intended for a deep dive into any of the presented topics, there were some factual errors in this video that are not explained by your general approach – which I'm sure you actually are aware of, Hank. Somewhat odd

xbox quantum and playstation nitro anyone?

quantum computer will require quantum computer programmers….. and java

Aaah yes good ol' Shrodngjr

Scishow why don't you sell mobiles and other stuff directly to the customer?.

…'weee…' are still waiting for proof that you can accelerate the decay of ²³²Th by 'quantum-state-transfer' alone, faster than 14 Gyr 'half-life'…lest your hemidemisemiQwaver (sic) be fretfully slow and reminiscent and imitatory of, the famous Turing Halting Problem……google'll use it for compressing youtube files and it'll be known as mediacracy (sic)…42

Down with cat killers! Reject the cruelty of that meanie Schrodinger and help save our furry overlords! 😺😻

does a trinary computer count as a Turing machine, and is it better than a binary computer?

"If you can't find something NICE to say about quantum computers, then qubit to yourself!"

Speaking as a l̶a̶z̶y̶ programmer, I hope I don't ever have to learn quantum programming

I think the explanation for how a quantum computer works is way too over simplified and gives a bed representation to what a quantum computer would be used for. "A quantum computer can have a 1 or 0 or it can be both at the same time" while this explanation is technically correct it is so overly simplified that it is incorrect. Trinary computers already exist and a quantum computer is not just adding a new bit to computing. Quantum computers work by collapsing wave functions under used with probability equations in cryptography.

Still such a dumb concept. The cat is what it is. Our perception is the only thing questionable and to assume that our perception is focused on one or the other rather than open to either or neither, neither being that the cat isn't in the box and/or the poison won't work, is patronizing.

This will make encryption obsolete.

In other words, Google succeeded. The definition doesn't matter if their CHIP can do in 200 SECONDS what IBM merely CLAIMED, but DID NOT prove, they could do WITH A SUPERCOMPUTER in 2.5 DAYS. Just let all those ratios sink in. Once you do, there is only one conclusion: Google succeeded.

Trying to achieve both quantum supremacy and real AI as soon as possible. What can possibly go wrong with a real AI based on quantum computing?! It'll realize in 0.01 seconds that humanity should cease to exist and in further 0.02 seconds come up with a thousand different scenarios of how to destroy human civilization, and the next 0.5 seconds will initiate all of them.

quantum computers do not become mainstream until the year 2065

and come with the added controversy of should cybernetically enhanced humans have access to a quantum neural interface

So when i say i am alive and well but dead inside means i am a quantum computer equation?

nothing brilliant about your weak ass title, its almost like you've been stuck under a rock for 15 years …….

your slurring your words using your invisaliner

So, 40 years.

But how will this make video games better?

If you had quantum computers that could brute force encryption you'll just need to use quantum computers to make much more complex encryption. So instead of 10,000 years at current computer speeds make ones that can take millions or billions of years, so that it could still take even quantum computers thousands to brute force.

The reason you'd need the quantum computers to do that encryption is you'll have to do so much bigger calculations with bigger numbers that just encrypting stuff will take more time.

I totally thought the cryptography bit was a lead-in for a sponsorship ad for a VPN and almost clicked out of the rest of the video. I'm conditioned with sponsors to SKIP IT!

I'm not a quantum expert but the hardware approach Google is using seems to have functional applications with potential speed advantage. It should be more than a random number generator. Costs like money time and energy all play factors. It seems to me this line of development will lead to utility in the not too distant future.

Imagine in 2040 your home computers have a symbiotic duel hardware setup. Having a Bit Processor and Qubit Processor on a hybrid fibre optics motherboard. Plus GPU with the same configuration.

Why doesn't anyone ever talk about the cat. As a sentient being it would know first hand if it were alive or dead…

News flash guys … Dead cats stink … Like hell no glass box is gonna hold it in….

People who are disappointed by the educational level of this presentation expecting too much from a channel peddling useless subscriptions for uneducated.

Google never lies. Nooooo…… Never……..

Dear Turning Machine. Where did I put my other sock?

Depending on your favourite interpretation, of quantum mechanics, quantum computers can be mind-blowing. In the many-worlds model, we 'ask' our quantum computer a question and it 'splits' the labour, across a nearly infinite array of identical computers in parallel universes. Each tries a different solution to the same question and we then (somehow) filter out the correct answer. Wow!

IBM pointed out another problem with Google's announcement: their quantum computer relied on a classical computer doing computation beforehand in order to work. The total amount of computation time was not measured in seconds but hours.

Here's my theory: physicists touch themselves… A lot! Or not at all… Or both. Yeah, I think I'm going to go with a lot.

I wonder what will happen to crypto currencies once q-computers become a thing.

The cat knows.

Terrible segway. Spend your time being clever on your presentation.

Shrowdinger butchering foreign names with proud, since 1899. To be fair only idiots would expect any attention to detail besides explaining quantum physics.

That's all cool and stuff, but can you play Minesweeper?

I always thought the man was literally saying that every cat is both alive and dead until you go check on it. Which is pretty unfalsifiable

❤️❤️

Sounds like a cool album title from a prog rock or technical death metal band. To back up my point, the death metal band Beyond Creation opened up their song Fundamental Process with the line "quantum hypothesis leading to those mystical superpositions".

Props for not using the bit about cryptography to promote one of those password security companies

Schrödinger =/= Schrödinschör

Cracked me up really good^^

cant the cat just be paralyzed?

I'd be willing to bet a dollar that the NSA already has a working computer capable of breaking standard cryptographic ciphers and have been doing it to spy on nation states for years.

5:44 "Every time you log int your computer"

That line is largely incorrect in this context. 99% of the time when you log into your computer you are doing a symmetric crypto operation which has no known efficient quantum solution. It is only the asymmetric operations that are currently threatened by quantum. I know it was not your intent, but the way you presented this is fear mongering.